BY JARROD McALEESE A FOUR-YEAR contract has been awarded to SkillsPlus to operate the incoming Federally-funded Transition to Work program….[To read the rest of this story Subscribe or Login to the Gazette Access Pass] Thanks for reading the Pakenham Berwick Gazette. Subscribe or Login to read the rest of this content with the Gazette Digital Access Pass subscription.
This only occurs because England boasts a semblance of financial balance, unlike other leagues where clubs negotiate their own TV deals.While half of domestic TV cash is distributed by virtue of league finish, overseas rights — where the future growth lies — is divided equally at £40.8million per club per season.10 Foreign fans love the fact that any team can win on the dayCredit: AFPBut that won’t be the case for long if the greed merchants are allowed to trample on the fabric of English football.Venture capitalist Henry says: “Everyone in the (Premier) League knows what the large clubs bring to the value of foreign rights, but the large clubs do not have the votes to change something that should have changed as media rights changed over the past 25 years. It’s hard to imagine this continuing much longer.”So, a clarion call from Liverpool’s owner for the rich to get richer. It’s not exactly the spirit of Shankly.Liverpool’s Daniel Sturridge reveals he bought a phone to return it to owner while on US break Henry’s sabre-rattling takes place with the backdrop of a potential breakaway European super league — the implied long-term threat designed to make those outside of the elite vote like turkeys for Christmas.Four clubs outside the Dirty Half Dozen had already been convinced to vote against their own interests and with only six top-flight clubs now British-owned, there is an increasing danger of a carve-up which would impact on the finances of Football League clubs.10 Reduced money for smaller clubs would widen the gap to the top sixCredit: REUTERSIt is not as simple as ‘British owners good, foreigners bad’. Mike Ashley could not a give a flying fig about English football as a whole, either.But sure as hell, Henry, the Glazers, Stan Kroenke and the Abu Dhabi sheikhs are not going to make a stand to keep English football competitive.Caught in the crosshairs of Henry and his allies is the issue of parachute payments, made to clubs relegated to the Championship.Latest Liverpool newsfull houseIrish housing market ‘back to normal’ after ‘big wobble’ due to Covid pandemicGRAND PRIZESee inside Irish cottage that could be yours for €10 in Covid frontline raffleHOUSE OF HORRORStunned homeowner finds new €149k bungalow is filled with mountains of junkhousing on trackLiving near Dublin rail station can add up to €180k to home’s valuetied up in knotweedHow to stop spread of Japanese Knotweed causing havoc around IrelandPERV AGENT HELLDublin mum tells how predatory estate agent sexually harassed herThere has been a smear campaign against this practice, making it out to be a lucrative reward for failure.In fact it is the existence of this safety net which allows smaller Premier League clubs to spend and compete without the threat of complete financial ruin should they go down.The Championship, the fourth best-supported league in the world, is a wonderful and utterly unique competition, a perfect breeding ground for the Premier League, while Leagues One, Two and the non-league pyramid also attract crowds considered extraordinary elsewhere.But the drip-down effect of Henry’s ideas, if ever implemented, would impact seriously on all of this.It is why the American and his cronies must never be allowed to succeed.PETE, I FORGOT TO SAY…10 RIP my first boss Peter ButcherTHIS week I attended the funeral of my first boss, Peter Butcher, the long-serving sports editor of the Romford Recorder, who died last month aged 67.An Oxford University graduate with the brain the size of a planet, Pete simply adored local sport — especially non-league football — and had no ambitions to gain a wider audience.He was an eccentric, who managed to simultaneously channel the spirit of Tommy Cooper and the Bond villain Jaws. Pete was wonderfully adept at chain-smoking, furiously typing and growling into a telephone all at once.He chronicled the sporting scene in his corner of Essex with extraordinary thoroughness and passion and so it was little surprise his funeral was packed.One friend told how Pete had recently opened the bowling at Havering Cricket Club, wearing socks and sandals and with a Benson & Hedges in his mouth.They made him redundant ten years ago, deciding his modest salary was too expensive. And he never worked full-time again, although he became club secretary at AFC Hornchurch.Men like Pete are enormously valuable cultivators of grass-roots sport and they deserve to be cherished. I only wish I’d told him that while he was still with us.YAYA IS NO-NO10 Yaya Toure’s pop at Pep Guardiola does him no favoursCredit: ReutersBY all accounts Yaya Toure has been bitching about Pep Guardiola behind his back for some time.But he’s brought his gripes spectacularly out into the open by accusing the Manchester City boss of ‘having problems with African players’.Toure has long since believed he has not received sufficient credit for his major role in City’s first two Premier League title campaigns.And outside of City this may be true. All City players are routinely under-appreciated, with none having won a major individual award for almost half a century.But inside City, Toure was idolised by supporters and valued by staff. This outburst has jeopardised all of that and does Toure no favours.YOU AND I, UNAI10 Unai Emery wants his former Sevilla man Steven NZonzi to join him at ArsenalCredit: PA:Press AssociationNEWS that boss Unai Emery has persuaded the Arsenal hierarchy to bid for Steven Nzonzi from his old club Sevilla is welcome.Firstly, it suggests the new ‘head coach’ will have some clout over recruitment.Second, the midfield strongman is exactly the sort of player Arsene Wenger should have signed years ago.BROAD SIDED10 Stuart Broad has been called out by Michael VaughanCredit: PA:Press AssociationTEST reflections…Great to hear the Stuart Broad-Michael Vaughan ding-dong after the ex-England captain claimed the bowler should have been axed. The relationship between England and the broadcast media has been far too cosy for years.Jos Buttler’s recall. Some claimed he was a white-ball specialist who couldn’t play Tests as he rarely played red-ball cricket.Colour is irrelevant when Buttler is launching it out of the ground.If you know you’re getting old when policeman start looking young, how do you feel when two members of England’s attack — Dom Bess and Sam Curran — look like mascots?Two-Test series are a joke. At 1-1, it was begging for a decider.BAR NONE10 Joey Barton reckons all eyes are on him at Fleetwood TownCredit: PA:Press AssociationJOEY BARTON claims 35 million people want him to fail as manager of Fleetwood Town.Mate, don’t kid yourself that anything like that number could care less. THE Big Six always tend to flex their muscles at this time of year.But this summer, they are increasingly confident they can bully and frighten the rest of the Premier League into handing over more TV cash.10 Liverpool owner John W. Henry is leading the Big Six in calls for more Premier League cashCredit: Getty ImagesWith Liverpool owner John ‘Dubya’ Henry to the fore, all filthy rich and claptrap, they are talking up the possibility of mustering the 14 out of 20 votes required to grant themselves an unequal share of foreign TV cash at Thursday’s league AGM.If this sounds like a squabble over cash between men in suits with little impact on the actual football, think again.Of course, Henry — who is only saying what both Manchester clubs, Chelsea, Arsenal and Tottenham are also thinking — wants to rake in more cash in the short term.But the American is seemingly unaware that he would be strangling the goose that lays the golden egg.10 Owners of the country’s elite clubs – like the Glazers at Manchester United – want even more of the foreign TV moneyCredit: Mark Robinson – The SunBecause the competitive depth of English football is what makes the Premier League such a phenomenal global cash machine.It is not the best league in the world — how can it be described as such when Spanish clubs have won nine of the last ten European trophies?FRED THE RED Man Utd confirm done deal for Brazil star FredIt does not attract the greatest talent on the planet. Despite all its wealth, Cristiano Ronaldo, Lionel Messi and Neymar are staying steadfastly on mainland Europe.What makes the Premier League such a gripping weekly soap opera is the fact that ‘no easy games’ is not a cliche, but a potential advertising slogan.10 More money for the Big Six would be disastrous for the leagueCredit: Getty ImagesWhen Henry’s Liverpool take on the Glazer family’s Manchester United in ‘Super Sundays’ and ‘Red Mondays’, they usually leave the world yawning.More often than not it is classic matches between the little guys and the elite which make the league a thrill-seeker’s paradise.Most read in sportWHAT THE REFMMA fighter gets DQ’d in Abu Dhabi and tries to fight Brit ref Marc GoddardLIL ISSUEBoris Becker’s estranged wife begs his new girlfriend to ‘step away from my son’RETRACING STEPSJack Charlton’s granddaughter Emma Wilkinson ‘would love’ to visit IrelandROY RAGEFurious Roy Keane launched foul-mouthed rant at Pique over Fabregas friendshipPicturedTOP FORMBrazil icon Ronaldo soaks up sun with partner Celina Locks on yacht in FormenteraCHOPPER BOTHERJohn Terry ignores hol advice & travels to ‘off-limits’ Portugal by chopperDream Team World Cup – Sign up to win £100kEnter for FREE£50m budget and 20 transfers throughout the tournamentPlay to win £100k top price and a share of £175k prizepotSIGN UP FOR DREAM TEAM WORLD CUP NOW
Milan and Cortina d’Ampezzo are promising an Italian Olympics packed with style and elan after winning the right to stage the 2026 Winter Games on Monday.Milan earned 47 votes from the International Olympic Committee membership, compared to Stockholm’s 34, prompting loud celebrations from the bid team, which had earlier included Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte.“Italy, the future and sport have won,” Italy’s Deputy Prime Minister Matteo Salvini said back in Italy.“Thanks to those who believed in it right away, especially in the Municipalities and Regions, and a pity for those who gave up.“There will be at least five billion (euros) in added value, 20,000 jobs, as well as many new roads and sports facilities. With the Winter Olympics we will confirm our excellence and our skills to the world.”Milan and Stockholm were the only candidates left after four other cities — Switzerland’s Sion, Japan’s Sapporo, Austria’s Graz and 1988 hosts Calgary in Canada — had dropped out of the race with concerns over the size and cost of the event.Turkey’s Erzurum was cut by the IOC.“Congratulations to Milan-Cortina. We can look forward to outstanding and sustainable Olympic Winter Games in a traditional winter sports country,” IOC President Thomas Bach said after announcing the winner.“We will contribute to the success of these Games 925 million dollars. This will greatly facilitate the preparations and will be an important part of a great partnership we will enjoy with Cortina and Milan.”STRONG SUPPORTThe Games organisational budget is at $1.7 billion according to the bid file but that does not include infrastructure projects.Bach said the strong public support in Italy of over 80% was a key factor, with Stockholm having had just over 50% of local support in a recent IOC-commissioned poll.Stockholm’s refusal to sign the host contract if the city won was another factor. Co-hosts Are would have done it.“Gathering a bit the atmosphere when leaving the room my assumption is that what made the difference was the gap in the public support,” Bach said.“Public support goes hand in hand with political support and this was maybe also the reason why the city of Stockholm was not ready to sign the host city contract.”Italy last hosted the Winter Olympics in 2006 in Turin while Cortina staged the Winter Games back in 1956.“I am really emotional because this is a very, very important result,” said bid chief Giovanni Malago. “Not only for me but for the whole country. “What we did this afternoon is we represented successfully the images of our country.”Sweden, a winter sports powerhouse which hosted the Summer Olympics in 1912, has now bid eight times unsuccessfully for the Winter Games. Sweden also failed to land the 2004 Summer Olympics.
The coach said they came into the game as underdogs and praised his players for what he described as a gutsy performance. “We are orphans as the other teams have mothers and fathers,” Cohen said, alluding to the other three teams’ financial support. “We will take it one game at a time because everyone competing in the play-off are champions, so we respect the other teams.” “Our next game is away, so the focus is now on that one. We missed some chances, especially in the second half, but I am pleased, 100 per cent, with the fighting spirit of the team today,” Cohen shared. Mount Pleasant’s head coach, Paul ‘Tegat’ Davis, said it was a hard loss due to mistakes at the back. “It was a tough loss. Nobody wants to lose their opening game, but it was on the road, so we will go back home and get ready for the next game,” Davis, a former national senior team striker, said. “We gave up two silly goals quickly after taking the lead and never recovered from that. We could not find any momentum, and it became difficult. We kept on making errors, and it cost us the whole game. We will just have to work on that for the next game,” he added. GUTSY PERFORMANCE Dunbeholden FC demonstrated resilience when they had a come-from-behind 2-1 win against the highly fancied Mount Pleasant Football Academy in the Magnum/Charley’s JB/Jamaica Football Federation promotion play-off series opening round at the Dunbeholden Sports Complex in St Catherine yesterday. Mount Pleasant came out on the front foot and took the lead when striker Kesslan Hall fired past Dunbeholden’s goalkeeper, Geovanni Smith, in the 20th minute. However, the home side fought back with two goals inside two minutes. Kevin Reid found the equaliser in the 26th minute, and the outstanding Jerome Wedderburn got the winning goal in the 28th minute. South Central Confederation champions, Dunbeholden started slowly but picked up momentum. Mount Pleasant, who won the Eastern Confederation, were shabby in defence and paid the price. The margin of victory could have been wider had it not been for faulty shooting, especially from Lorenzo Dubidad. Dunbeholden was the better-organised team and deserved to win the game. Coach of Dunbeholden Michael ‘Richie’ Cohen described the victory as “overwhelming”. “It is an overwhelming feeling to win our first game in the play-off series. We represented well. The team started slowly and went behind but found the equaliser and winner,” Cohen told The Gleaner immediately after the game.
… does not have to take orders from PresidentA constitutionally mandated commission is supposed to be an independent body that is able to make hard decisions which, even if they displease the Government, are still protected by law. Thus, by bending to political pressure it is giving up itsFormer Attorney General Anil Nandlallauthority and independence.This is according to former Attorney General Anil Nandlall, who expressed grave concern that the Police Service Commission (PSC) appears to be obeying directives from President David Granger. The President had instructed the Commission, via letter, to halt all Police promotions.“(If) the Commission agrees to abide by the direction of the President, then the Commission itself would be aiding and abetting the unconstitutionality,” the attorney said. “No authority or institution in this country has the power, the authority or the jurisdiction to violate or act contrary to the Constitution.”“If the Police Service Commission is succumbing to those unconstitutional directives,” Nandlall continued, “then it is ceding its integrity, its independence and its functional authority and therefore would no longer be acting in the best interestPresident David Grangerof those whose welfare its business is to protect.”Describing it as the height of executive lawlessness, Nandlall noted that the issue is symptomatic of the breakdown of constitutional institutions in Guyana. And while the Commission has its role to play, Nandlall emphasised that protecting the Constitution of Guyana was everyone’s business.“What we are witnessing is political pressure being applied and which is causing a breakdown of constitutional institutions and a breakdown in law and order in this country. This is the height of executive lawlessness,” Nandlall said.“Any citizen can approach the court for an order declaring the directives of the President as unlawful and obtain an order restraining the Commission from acting and being influenced by the directive. Every citizen has a duty to ensure that thePSC ChairmanOmesh SatyanandConstitution, the supreme law of the country, is not violated.”Earlier in the week, Chairman of the PSC, Omesh Satyanand, had made known that after a meeting with the other Commissioners, it was decided that they were going to adhere to the order to halt all promotions until further notice.Even the Chairman had expressed concern that halting the entire promotion process would be a blow to senior officers. He had noted that these officers have invested time and energy in building a career at the Guyana Police Force and were expecting their just reward.Noting that this was the first time a sitting President had issued such a directive to the Commission, he had called for some clarity and justification as to the circumstances that led to making such a decision.Minister of State Joseph Harmon, in a letter dated July 27, 2017, wrote to the PSC informing them that the President directed that there be no consideration of promotion for members of the Guyana Police Force until further notice and should be implemented immediately.Already, a number of decisions made by the coalition Government have been overturned by an independent judiciary, owing to their unconstitutional nature.Six West Coast Berbice (WCB) rice farmers had cause to mount a legal challenge against the revocation of their leases for lands at Seafield and Number 40 Village, under control of the Mahaica/Mahaicony/Abary Agricultural Development Authority (MMA/ADA).The acting Chief Justice ruled that their leases constitute property under Article 142 of the Constitution, and the President’s revocation of those leases amounted to depriving the applicants of property without compensating them, as noted in Article 142 of the Constitution.
0Shares0000Sam Allardyce has left his job as England boss by the FA, who are looking for a replacement. PHOTO/DM.LONDON, United Kingdom, Sep 28 – Sam Allardyce has left his job as manager of England after he was filmed using his position as Three Lions boss to negotiate a £400,000 speaking deal and offered advice to businessmen on how to get around Football Association transfer rules regarding third party ownership.Allardyce was appointed as England manager in July but the FA now have the unenviable task of finding a replacement, with the well now even drier than when the former West Ham boss was placed in the hotseat. Who is in the frame to replace Allardyce? Sportsmail have examined five potential candidates.http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/football/article-3809978/Eddie-Howe-Alan-Pardew-Arsene-Wenger-Five-potential-candidates-replace-Sam-Allardyce-England-manager.htmlEDDIE HOWEHowe has completely transformed Bournemouth and is the best young English manager. PHOTO/DM.The Bournemouth boss was heavily considered by the FA before they appointed Allardyce and recently described managing England as ‘the ultimate job’.The 38-year-old is the best young English manager around and has done an incredible job with the Cherries over two spells.When Bournemouth were struggling during the first half of their inaugural season in the top flight of English football, Howe stuck to his guns and remained unmoved in his footballing philosophies. The south coast outfit went on to play their way out of trouble and are now enjoying their second season in the Premier League, thanks in no small part to the strong will of their manager.Howe’s style of football is invigorating to watch. He may lack the experience of some of the other potential candidates, but with international football currently in dire straits, does that matter?ALAN PARDEWPardew wants to manage England at some point in his career. PHOTO/DM.Pardew stated his desire to manage England a few months ago in his Sportsmail column.The Crystal Palace manager divides opinion throughout the football world and has been involved in a number of regrettable incidents in the past, but he is an established Premier League boss and has forged himself a respectable if not glittering career in English football.Unlike Howe, Pardew does not have a set footballing philosophy and is not afraid to play ugly in order to win, but he is able to coax his teams into playing fast, attacking football. Palace were eye-catching during the first half of last season and were minutes away from FA Cup success.Pardew longs to manage the Three Lions at some point in his career. Is now the right time?GARETH SOUTHGATESouthgate has done a sterling job in his three years as manager of the England Under-21’s. PHOTO/DM.England Under-21 boss Southgate has been part of the Three Lions’ coaching set-up since 2013 and won the Toulon Tournament with the country’s best youngsters for the first time in over two decades.An early favourite to succeed Hodgson in the summer, Southgate would be able to rejuvenate a frankly average England squad with youthful talent better than most, due to his current position.But the former Middlesbrough manager has not managed in a top-flight division for seven years and, when taking into account the nation’s reaction to the news that he was the early frontrunner, it would not be a surprise to many if he wanted another attempt at club management first.STEVE BRUCEFormer Wigan boss Bruce is not exactly box-office but could well be considered. PHOTO/DM.Arguably the least glamorous name in a quintet that doesn’t exactly scream box-office.A three-time Premier League winner with Manchester United, Bruce has been relegated twice from the top flight of English football but due to the dearth of top-class English managers, the 55-year-old is seen as a contender.Bruce would take the job with both hands, and if the FA want another English manager – it would be strange for them to change tact in the space of two months – the former Wigan, Sunderland and Huddersfield Town boss will be under consideration.ARSENE WENGER Wenger has one more year on his deal at Arsenal but is far from likely to take the England rein. PHOTO/DM.Undoubtedly the best manager out of the five, but in the same breath he is the most unlikely to take on the role.Wenger has helped change the face of English football and his knowledge of the game seemingly knows no bounds. His second decade at the helm of Arsenal has not been as successful as his first, but his standing in world football is unquestioned, and only rivalled by a handful.Wenger would be an incredible appointment by the FA if they could somehow manage to convince him to coach the Three Lions.The FA made the illustrious Frenchman their No 1 target after Hodgson was relieved of his duties after the Iceland debacle, but were almost inevitably unsuccessful.Two months later, with the Premier League season underway and the FA in as much chaos, if not more, as they were in the summer, the chances of Wenger taking the job now are as slim as can be.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)
Donegal has been allocated almost €11.6 million under the 2013 National Roads Allocation.The allocation is down almost 50% on last year, however when more than €20M was allocated.A number of major projects have been included in the allocation which was announced last night. The allocation has been welcomed by Labour Party Senator Jimmy Harte.“This is a substantial allocation and it will go some way towards the development and upkeep of the road network across Donegal,” said Senator Harte.Among the projects allocated funding are the Mountcharles to Inver Road – €2M, Letterkenny to Lifford Road, €300,000, Dungloe to Glenties Road – €580,000.Other projects allocated substantial amounts of funding include Kilmacrennan Traffic Management – €80,000 and Loughanure Pavement Repair Overlay – €280,000. ALMOST €11.6 MILLION ALLOCATED TO DONEGAL ROAD PROJECTS FOR 2013 was last modified: January 22nd, 2013 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:National Roads AllocationSenator Jimmy Harte
This Tuesday morning on Sportsday we looked back on last night’s Merseyside derby. A 94th-minute Saido Mane goal earned Liverpool three points over rivals Everton at Goodison Park as they moved up to second in the Premier League. We also keep you up to date with day five of the fifth and final Test between India and England, last night’s World Darts Championship action and Diego Costa’s Chelsea future.All brought to you by Russ Hargreaves and the team.
Will Joe Hart return to the Premier League after his loan in Italy? Ray Parlour believes Arsenal should stick with Petr Cech this summer and not move in to sign Joe Hart, but says the England goalkeeper would be a good fit for Liverpool.Three Lions number one Hart is widely expected to be on the move from Manchester City in the upcoming transfer window after being deemed surplus to requirements by Pep Guardiola and spending the season on loan with Torino.Staying in Italy could be an option for the 29-year-old, with former England goalkeeper David James telling talkSPORT he should consider a move to Juventus.But former Arsenal midfielder Parlour believes Hart still has a future in the Premier League.Responding to the question marks over 34-year-old Cech’s future with the Gunners, the Invincibles star told the Alan Brazil Sports Breakfast: “I think Arsenal should stick with Petr Cech.“Cech has been there and done it in big competitions – he’s won the Champions League and Premier League titles.“I’m sure that if Joe Hart wants to come back to England they’d be quite a few takers in the Premier League.“I can see him definitely coming back to England, but maybe not right at the top level – not to Chelsea, Manchester United or Tottenham.“Liverpool would be a good fit for him, but other than that you’re looking at a mid-table side.” 1
An unconfident Mahatma Gandhi landed in Durban in 1893. Ten years later a much changed man stepped off a train at Park Station in Joburg, well on his way to developing a philosophy that would touch the world.By the time he left South Africa for his native India in 1914, at the age of 46, Gandhi’s philosophy of Satyagraha was fully realised.Satyagraha is the philosophy of non-violent (or “passive”) resistance famously employed by Gandhi in forcing the end of the British Raj – but first wielded against racial injustice in South Africa.This year marks the centenary of the beginning of the Satyagraha movement, based on a philosophy which originated in September 1906, born out of Gandhi’s experiences while living in Johannesburg with his family from 1903 to 1914.Gandhi’s JohannesburgGandhi left his gentle footprint around Johannesburg: from the house in Albermarle Street in Troyeville, where he and his family stayed in the early 1900s, to Victory House in the CBD, where he was refused entry to the city’s first lift, to the Old Fort prison where he served two terms of several months each in 1908.But perhaps the most significant site was the Empire Theatre – long demolished but originally on the corner of Commissioner and Ferreira streets – where the Satyagraha movement was born.Birth of SatyagrahaOn 11 September 1906, Gandhi chaired a meeting of more than 3 000 people there. The town’s Indians were protesting against the Transvaal Asiatic Law Amendment Ordinance, Eric Itzkin writes in Gandhi’s Johannesburg, birthplace of Satyagraha.The ordinance required all Asians to obey three rules: those of eight years or older had to carry passes for which they had to give their fingerprints; they would be segregated as to where they could live and work; new Asian immigration into the Transvaal would be disallowed, even for those who had left the town when the South African War broke out in 1899 and were returning.The meeting produced the Fourth Resolution, in which all Indians resolved to go to prison rather than submit to the ordinance.Itzkin, Johannesburg’s deputy director of immovable heritage, quotes Gandhi as saying: “Up to the year 1906 I simply relied on appeal to reason. I was a very industrious reformer … But I found that reason failed to produce an impression when the critical moment arrived in South Africa.“My people were excited – even a worm can and does turn – and there was talk of wreaking vengeance. I had then to choose between allying myself to violence or finding out some other method of meeting the crisis and stopping the rot, and it came to me that we should refuse to obey legislation that was degrading and let them put us in jail if they liked. Thus came into being the moral equivalent of war.”‘Passive’ resistanceDespite Satyagraha, the ordinance became law in 1907, and non-violent resistance was used by the Transvaal’s Indians to oppose discrimination.In 1913 it spread to Natal (now KwaZulu-Natal), where Indian coal miners downed tools.The African National Congress (ANC), founded in 1912, was also influenced and used the philosophy up until the 1960s, when they switched to a policy of armed struggle to overthrow apartheid.Satyagraha was also used by Martin Luther King in the US who, according to Itzkin, “accepted Satyagraha as the only morally sound method open to oppressed people in their struggle for freedom”.Source: City of Johannesburg