The hunt for the Higgs steps up a gear (PhysOrg.com) — Recent research in the US suggests there may be five versions of the theorized Higgs boson. The Higgs was dubbed the “God particle” by Nobel laureate Leon Lederman because its discovery could unify our understanding of the universe and help us “know the mind of God”.The Higgs is extremely important to the accepted theory of physics, known as the “Standard Model”, which was developed in the 1970s to incorporate everything known at the time about interactions between sub-atomic particles. The Higgs boson is thought to be the sub-atomic particle that mediates the force through which all other sub-atomic particles acquire their mass.Scientists have been trying for five decades to detect the Higgs boson, but have so far failed. Now theoretical physicist Adam Martin and colleagues at the Fermilab’s Tevatron particle accelerator near Chicago in Illinois in the US have analyzed results from the DZero experiment and suggest there may be multiple versions of the Higgs boson.The DZero experiment set up and observed collisions protons and anti-protons and was designed to examine the reason why the world is composed of normal matter rather than its opposite: anti-matter. They found the collisions resulted in pairs of muons one percent more often than anti-muon particles. The asymmetry could explain why matter has come to dominate over anti-matter, rather than the two annihilating each other.This effect, called CP violation, had been seen before but not to the same degree as seen in DZero, and the degree of asymmetry found in the latest results is greater than can be accounted for by the Standard Model. The researchers said the results could be explained by the existence of five Higgs boson particles with similar masses, with one having a negative electric charge, one negative and three neutral. The theory is called the two-Higgs doublet model.The two-Higgs doublet model is not the only possible explanation for the results, but Dr Martin said fitting a new effect in the Standard Model without disrupting its fit with other tests is difficult. The Standard Model accommodates only one Higgs doublet, and while scientists think of the Higgs as a single particle, Dr Martin said it “actually comes in a package of four”. Only one is seen because the other three are seen as W and Z bosons. Adding another Higgs doublet adds four more particles.Many physicists have come to regard the Standard Model as incomplete since it does not explain gravity or describe dark matter. An extension to the Standard Model, known as “supersymmetry,” proposes that each particle has a more massive “shadow” partner particle, effectively doubling the number of known particles. Such a scheme could accommodate the two-Higgs doublet model. So far no experimental evidence has been found for the existence of the “shadow” particles.The search for the Higgs boson is one of the main aims of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva in Switzerland. The facility, the world’s largest particle accelerator, could also find experimental evidence for supersymmetry.The results of the US research is published at arXiv.org. The Standard Model. Image credit: AAAS This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Explore further More information: Bogdan A. Dobrescu, Patrick J. Fox, Adam Martin: CP violation in B_s mixing from heavy Higgs exchange, arXiv:1005.4238, arxiv.org/abs/1005.4238 Citation: Study finds there may be multiple ‘God particles’ (2010, June 16) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2010-06-multiple-god-particles.html
New research in the UK on rhesus macaque monkeys has found for the first time that if they live in larger groups they develop more gray matter in parts of the brain involved in processing information on social interactions. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Similar structures for face selectivity in human and monkey brains The researchers, led by Jerome Sallet of Oxford University, said the results of the new study bear some similarities to research by other groups working with humans, that related brain size to the extent of social interactions. These studies include recent work that suggested a link between the volume of some regions of the brain and the number of online friends people have in social networking sites such as Facebook.The new study observed 23 macaques in a number of groups of different sizes. The monkeys were kept in their groups for an average of over a year, and a minimum of two months. One monkey was alone in its cage, but in all the other groups, which had from two to seven individuals, a heirarchy developed in which an individual’s rank depended on the monkey’s ability to form successful social interactions, such as friendships and partnerships.The study used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare the brains of the monkeys, and the results showed that in the temporal areas of the brain associated with social interaction skills, around a five percent increase in the volume of gray matter was found for each additional group member. The regions of the brain that increased in volume included the temporal pole, temporal cortex, and the inferior and rostral temporal gyri. The researchers also compared the brains of male monkeys at various levels in the dominance-based heirarchy and found a number of brain areas, particularly the prefrontal cortex and inferior temporal sulcus, were enlarged in males of higher rank.The research demonstrated that the social networks caused the changes in the brain (rather than enlarged brain areas influencing position in the social network, or the size of the network) because the scientists manipulated the size and makeup of the groups over a period of several months, and observed the changes in the brains of the monkeys.Earlier research has shown that the brain shows plasticity, which means it can change in volume in different regions in response to environmental changes or acquisition of new skills or knowledge. Research had not previously shown brain plasticity in relation to social networking skills.The paper was published in the journal Science on 4th November. Citation: Monkeys with larger friend networks have more gray matter (2011, November 4) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-11-monkeys-larger-friend-networks-gray.html Explore further © 2011 PhysOrg.com
© 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. More information: Bo Wang et al. “Visible-Frequency Dielectric Metasurfaces for Multiwavelength Achromatic and Highly Dispersive Holograms.” Nano Letters. DOI: 10.1021/acs.nanolett.6b02326 (Phys.org)—By carefully arranging many nanoblocks to form pixels on a metasurface, researchers have demonstrated that they can manipulate incoming visible light in just the right way to create a color “meta-hologram.” The new method of creating holograms has an order of magnitude higher reconstruction efficiency than similar color meta-holograms, and has applications for various types of 3D color holographic displays and achromatic planar lenses. Explore further Multicolor meta-hologram produces light across entire visible spectrum Citation: High-efficiency color holograms created using a metasurface made of nanoblocks (2016, July 29) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2016-07-high-efficiency-holograms-metasurface-nanoblocks.html (Top left) One pixel, which is made of four nanoblocks. (Top right) Experimental setup for generating a color hologram. (Bottom) Experimental results of achromatic color holograms, made of red, green, or blue light or by combining these colors. Credit: Wang et al. ©2016 American Chemical Society Color holographic image made by shining laser light on a metasurface. Credit: Wang et al. ©2016 American Chemical Society The researchers, Bo Wang et al., from Peking University and the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, both in China, have published a paper on the new type of hologram in a recent issue of Nano Letters.The pixels on the new metasurface consist of three types of silicon nanoblocks whose precise dimensions correspond to the wavelengths of three different colors: red, green, and blue. To enhance the efficiency for the blue light, two identical nanoblocks corresponding to the blue light are arranged in each pixel, along with one nanoblock for red light and one for green light.The researchers explain that each pixel can be thought of as a “meta-molecule” because it is the basic repeating, subwavelength unit of the larger metasurface that constitutes the entire hologram. The meta-molecules enable the metasurface to control light in ways that are not possible without modern nanoscale design.When red, green, and blue lasers illuminate the hologram, each nanoblock manipulates the phase of its corresponding color. The researchers explain that a key achievement of the study was to minimize the interactions between nanoblocks so that the nanoblocks function almost independently of each other. Then by orienting the nanoblocks in different ways, the researchers could change the light’s phase manipulation, resulting in different holographic images. “Our work provides an approach for realizing the almost independent manipulation of phase for different visible wavelengths in subwavelength resolution and in transmission mode due to the absence of interactions between nanoblocks within one meta-molecule, which allows for particular functionalities,” coauthor Yan Li, at Peking University, told Phys.org.The researchers demonstrated that the nanoblock approach can be used to create two different types of holograms. In an achromatic hologram, the entire reconstructed image is in one color. By balancing the relative input of the three colors, a wide spectrum of colors can be achieved. In the second type of hologram, called a highly dispersive hologram, different parts of the reconstructed image have different colors—for example, a red flower, green stem, and blue container. The new color hologram has a variety of potential applications where spectral wavefront manipulation is required, such as 3D color holograms, achromatic lenses, and anti-conterfeiting planar optical devices. The researchers plan to pursue these applications in future work.”Based on this idea and approach, novel real planar optical devices may be fabricated to realize many novel or extra functions in the future,” Weiguo Chu at the National Center for Nanoscience and Technology said. Journal information: Nano Letters
Going an extra mile to make the women staff at The Imperial feel safe and secure in the city, The Imperial had organized Self Defence workshop in the beginning of June 2014 and its Grand finale was conducted on 25 June at The Royal Ballroom, to demonstrate the techniques taught by the Delhi Police officials. The workshop was held to empower women with essential skills to handle untoward situations and instill confidence for safeguarding themselves at anytime, anywhere. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The action- packed afternoon which culminated with yet another session of self defence training organized for 15 days this year saw the presence of senior police officials including the Chief Guest Garima Bhatnagar, Joint Commissioner of Police (Special Cell). Trainers from women’s cell of Delhi police, senior management and associates of The Imperial were also present at the occasion.The event started with an introductory speech by Senior Executive Vice President & General Manager, The Imperial Vijay Wanchoo said, ‘Women today constitute a considerable workforce in the service sector. This makes our role in ensuring their safety, critical. We had initiated this exclusive workshop with Delhi Police again this year to train women associates who have recently joined and have taken all the measures to boost the level of participation amongst them. Various techniques are taught by the officials to ensure their safety in the hour of need enabling them to handle any unpleasant situation.’ Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixHe further added, ‘The Self Defense training has instilled strength to fight back and has made the lady associates aware of their capabilities and I am sure they are now better equipped to protect themselves in difficult and challenging situations.’At the grand finale, the participants demonstrated techniques they had learnt to handle situational attacks like hand holding, touching while travelling in bus, neck and knife attacks on women. The event concluded with the honoring of participants by presentation of certificates by Delhi Police in the presence of all guests and staff.
Kolkata: The state Criminal Investigation Department (CID) busted a fake document racket from Jalpaiguri on Monday night and apprehended a person in this connection.”We conducted a raid on the basis of credible source of information at a cosmetic store, based at Natun Bazar area near Dabgram in Jalpaiguri. The owner of the shop, Goutam Sarkar, was arrested and several forged documents were recovered from his possession,” said a senior official of the state CID department. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe sleuths have recovered 35 forged marksheets and certificates of different persons studying in a number of educational institutions in North Bengal, including North Bengal University. The CID team has also recovered a laptop, a colour printer and 31 forged rubber stamps belonging to headmasters of schools, inspectors in charge of police stations, local councillors and Panchayat pradhans. A lamination machine and some driving licences, which were suspected to be fake, were also seized from Sarkar’s possession.The state CID has initiated a case at New Jalpaiguri police station against Sarkar. “He will be produced at the local court, following which we will take him into custody and grill him for further leads,” a senior CID official said.
Aiming to create an appropriate e-market platform that would be deployable in wholesale regulated markets across states and UTs, the Ministry of Agriculture has approved a Central Sector Scheme to promote online sale of agriculture produce. The scheme which is based on promotion of national agricultural market through Agri-Tech Infrastructure Fund (ATIF) has been allotted a corpus fund of Rs 200 crore. The platform, according to Minister of State for Agriculture Mohanbhai Kundaria, will enable development of an alternative marketing channel, enhance transparency in auction process and number of buyers, resolve information asymmetry, improve market access by integrating warehouse based sales and will facilitate migration towards a barrier free national market.
Kolkata: State Transport minister Suvendu Adhikari, who is also the local MLA from Nandigram, will be visiting the homes of two people who were killed when bombs had exploded on the day of Panchayat election.It may be recalled that the victims – Apu Manna and Jogeswar Ghosh – were killed when crude bombs exploded at Nandigram. Preliminary investigation has revealed that the explosion took place when they were carrying the bombs. On the day of the election, six Trinamool Congress workers were killed in different parts of the state, on the day of the poll on May 14. Apu and Jogeswar were claimed to be CPI(M) workers. They had died after receiving severe injuries, when the bombs exploded. Sources said that the family members of both Apu and Jogeswar didn’t have any allegation against any political party. No such complaint was lodged in this connection either. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThe counting of the Panchayat polls is going to take place on Thursday and it has been learnt that Adhikari will be visiting the houses of the victims after the day of counting. Local people also went to the houses of the victims and the family members have shown confidence in the authorities.Sources said that the authorities will be extending as much help as possible to the bereaved family members, as the two victims were both bread earners of their respective families. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Merc, 2 B’deshi bystanders killedAdhikari will be speaking to the victims’ family members and would also enquire if they are facing any sort of problems. He would also extend as much necessary support as possible to the family members.It may be mentioned that Nandigram has witnessed massive development work in the past six and a half years after the change of guard in the state and the development work is still carrying on with equal pace in the area.
Kolkata: The Regional Meteorological Centre at Alipore has predicted that monsoon current will be active in the South Bengal districts, bringing more rainfall after June 23.There is, however, a possibility of scattered rainfall in some parts of South Bengal districts, which will fail to bring comfort for the people from the uneasy weather.According to a senior official of the weather office, there is possibility of scattered thunderstorm in various South Bengal districts, for the next two days. The monsoon rain will hit the districts of South Bengal between June 23-25. Also Read – Heavy rain hits traffic, flightsThere is, however, a prediction of moderate to heavy rainfall in North Bengal districts, in the next 48 hours. There will be no respite from the heat in the city and South Bengal districts in the next 48 hours, as predicted by the Regional Meteorological Centre.It may be mentioned that people in the city and the South Bengal districts witnessed a spell of shower on Thursday afternoon, resulting in a drop in temperature and giving temporary relief to the people from the sultry weather. “There may be some scattered rainfall in some parts of South Bengal, but it will not be able to bring respite to the people. The sultry and uncomfortable weather will prevail in South Bengal districts, while there is a prediction of rainfall in North Bengal districts. The situation will improve after June 23, as monsoon current will become active in South Bengal,” a senior official of the weather office said. City dwellers had witnessed the mercury touching 41 degree Celsius in the city for a few days. The city usually does not witness such temperature during this time of the year, after the onset of monsoon. Temperature in the districts like Purulia, Bankura, Burdwan, East Midnapore and West Midnapore also touched 40 degree Celsius.The weather office said that the westerly winds from Northern states are bringing the heat wave condition into the state. The impact of the westerly winds is high, as the monsoon currents remain stalled.Due to the monsoon currents getting stalled, the condition remains dry. The situation will improve as the monsoon will gain strength after June 23 and it would bring more rainfall, as predicted by the weather experts.
Yuki Bhambri had to be content with a runner-up finish at the ATP Challenger event here as he lost the closely-fought final against world number 75 Hyeon Chung, on Sunday.The fourth seed Indian wild card lost the summit clash 5-7 4-6 against the second seed Korean in one hour and 40 minutes. Yuki’s effort got him 75 points which will get him close to
Watching daughter Lily-Rose struggling with bad health in 2007 was the “darkest period” of actor Johnny Depp’s life.The 52-year-old “Black Mass” stars’ daughter, now 16, was hospitalised in 2007 after contracting an E Coli infection that caused kidney failure. She was 7 years old at the time, reported People magazine. “For me it’s a gift. They give me the gift. When my daughter was ill in Great Ormond Street it was the darkest period of my life. I’d always done these visits but after that experience the visits became more and more important. “The kids are so courageous but to be able to bring a smile or a giggle to the parents means everything in the world to me,” Depp said.