Two new loudspeakers are joining the Pioneer Professional Audio XY Series: the XY-1 and XY-2E. The XY-1 and XY-2E represent the LF and MHF sections, respectively — Pioneer says that using individual enclosures enables installers, rental houses and touring companies to easily build ground stacked point-source arrays and deploy systems in venues with low ceilings via a wide variety of configurations.In September 2017, Pioneer introduced the XY-3B and XY-2 which incorporate its X-Phase system. And now, with the release of the XY-1 and XY-2E and their smaller size and lower cost, more venues and events can benefit from the performance of an XY Series sound system due to the horizontal-array deployment options offered by the new units.The XY-1 consists of two 12-inch custom drivers in a hybrid dual-chamber configuration — exactly the same as the XY-3B, maintaining the chest-pumping low end of the flagship model. The XY-2E is much more than an XY-2 in an enclosure. Pioneer kept the X-phase system, but enabled individual control of the 8-inch cone driver and 1-inch compression driver, which the company says wasn’t previously possible.These adaptable new additions to the XY Series can also be used as stage fills, for live PA and DJ booth monitoring.The XY-1 and XY-2E are both available from today and common features of both the XY-1 and XY-2E are:The XY-1 and XY-2E can be deployed in a variety of fixed install and touring scenarios enabling numerous flying and ground stacking configurations. Deploy from low ceilings in single units or horizontal arrays using the CP-XY1VC1 flying cradle or the CP-XY1DF1 jointing plate respectively. Or create an array of up to nine speakers — 3×3 — using a combination of CP-XY1DF1 cradles and CP-XY1CON1 plates. Additionally, integrate the XY-2 underneath the XY-1 and XY-2E arrays for increased MHF coverage.The new loudspeakers are housed in wooden enclosures — ideal for guarding against bumps and scrapes on the road and in tight spaces. The black units also feature an elastothane coating for weather resistance and extra protection against impact.See related Pioneer Adds Four New Units to Commercial Monitor SeriesKey feature of the XY-1Hybrid low-mid section — A hybrid dual 12-inch chamber in the low-mid section enables the drivers to produce precise notes. Water-resistant treatment allows the LF drivers to deliver a natural tightness rather than using thicker speaker cone material which would add weight and slow down the speed of the cones.Key features of the XY-2EBi-horn — The 8-inch mid-range driver and the 1-inch compression driver are attached to the integrated waveguide with their depths aligned to minimize the difference of physical distance and reduce cancellation around the crossover frequency. This Bi-horn combines mid and high frequencies in a deep position inside the waveguide, improving the blend of the sounds compared to the performance of a conventional separated horn structure. The waveguide’s curved shape controls dispersion at 50 degrees horizontal and 35 degrees vertical, providing natural sound with high SPL in the targeted area while reducing the sound pressure outside that area.Passive or bi-amp control option — The XY-2E offers two different control settings. As standard, the passive crossover option is engaged – producing the iconic XY series sound. Reconfigure the existing cabling and you can individually manipulate the 1-inch exit neodymium compression driver and 8-inch neodymium cone driver in a bi-amp configuration with no need for additional parts.X-Phase system with gold X-Phase plug — Driver cone cancellation is minimized because of the X-Phase system. The convex shape forces sound waves into small slits which are arranged in a fan shape, allowing all sound waves to exit in perfect phase aliment. The sound waves are forced over the top and bottom of the X-phase plug, producing higher SPL and greater sound projection over long distances.
Share on Twitter “The important point is, this a proof of concept. That is, even if a memory seems to be gone, it is still there. It’s a matter of how to retrieve it,” says Susumu Tonegawa, the Picower Professor of Biology and Neuroscience and director of the RIKEN-MIT Center for Neural Circuit Genetics at the Picower Institute for Learning and Memory.Tonegawa is the senior author of the study, which appears in the March 16 online edition ofNature. Dheeraj Roy, an MIT graduate student, is the paper’s lead author.Lost memoriesIn recent years, Tonegawa’s lab has identified cells in the brain’s hippocampus that store specific memories. The researchers have also shown that they can manipulate these memory traces, or engrams, to plant false memories, activate existing memories, or alter a memory’s emotional associations.Last year, Tonegawa, Roy, and colleagues found that mice with retrograde amnesia, which follows traumatic injury or stress, had impaired memory recall but could still form new memories. That led the team to wonder whether this might also be true for the memory loss seen in the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, which occurs before characteristic amyloid plaques appear in patients’ brains.To investigate that possibility, the researchers studied two different strains of mice genetically engineered to develop Alzheimer’s symptoms, plus a group of healthy mice.All of these mice, when exposed to a chamber where they received a foot shock, showed fear when placed in the same chamber an hour later. However, when placed in the chamber again several days later, only the normal mice still showed fear. The Alzheimer’s mice did not appear to remember the foot shock.“Short-term memory seems to be normal, on the order of hours. But for long-term memory, these early Alzheimer’s mice seem to be impaired,” Roy says.“An access problem”The researchers then showed that while the mice cannot recall their experiences when prompted by natural cues, those memories are still there.To demonstrate this, they first tagged the engram cells associated with the fearful experience with a light-sensitive protein called channelrhodopsin, using a technique they developed in 2012. Whenever these tagged engram cells are activated by light, normal mice recall the memory encoded by that group of cells. Likewise, when the researchers placed the Alzheimer’s mice in a chamber they had never seen before and shined light on the engram cells encoding the fearful experience, the mice immediately showed fear.“Directly activating the cells that we believe are holding the memory gets them to retrieve it,” Roy says. “This suggests that it is indeed an access problem to the information, not that they’re unable to learn or store this memory.”The researchers also showed that the engram cells of Alzheimer’s mice had fewer dendritic spines, which are small buds that allow neurons to receive incoming signals from other neurons.Normally, when a new memory is generated, the engram cells corresponding to that memory grow new dendritic spines, but this did not happen in the Alzheimer’s mice. This suggests that the engram cells are not receiving sensory input from another part of the brain called the entorhinal cortex. The natural cue that should reactivate the memory — being in the chamber again — has no effect because the sensory information doesn’t get into the engram cells.“If we want to recall a memory, the memory-holding cells have to be reactivated by the correct cue. If the spine density does not go up during learning process, then later, if you give a natural recall cue, it may not be able to reach the nucleus of the engram cells,” Tonegawa says.Long-term connectionThe researchers were also able to induce a longer-term reactivation of the “lost” memories by stimulating new connections between the entorhinal cortex and the hippocampus.To achieve this, they used light to optogenetically stimulate entorhinal cortex cells that feed into the hippocampal engram cells encoding the fearful memory. After three hours of this treatment, the researchers waited a week and tested the mice again. This time, the mice could retrieve the memory on their own when placed in the original chamber, and they had many more dendritic spines on their engram cells.However, this approach does not work if too large a section of the entorhinal cortex is stimulated, suggesting that any potential treatments for human patients would have to be very targeted. Optogenetics is very precise but too invasive to use in humans, and existing methods for deep brain stimulation — a form of electrical stimulation sometimes used to treat Parkinson’s and other diseases — affect too much of the brain.“It’s possible that in the future some technology will be developed to activate or inactivate cells deep inside the brain, like the hippocampus or entorhinal cortex, with more precision,” Tonegawa says. “Basic research as conducted in this study provides information on cell populations to be targeted, which is critical for future treatments and technologies.” Email Pinterest Share on Facebook Share LinkedIn In the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease, patients are often unable to remember recent experiences. However, a new study from MIT suggests that those memories are still stored in the brain — they just can’t be easily accessed.The MIT neuroscientists report in Nature that mice in the early stages of Alzheimer’s can form new memories just as well as normal mice but cannot recall them a few days later.Furthermore, the researchers were able to artificially stimulate those memories using a technique known as optogenetics, suggesting that those memories can still be retrieved with a little help. Although optogenetics cannot currently be used in humans, the findings raise the possibility of developing future treatments that might reverse some of the memory loss seen in early-stage Alzheimer’s, the researchers say.
1 Sunderland are ready to splash £17m on Benfica midfielder Andreas Samaris.Black Cats boss David Moyes suggested he is unlikely to bring in any players this month who could make a “big difference,” but reports in Portugal believe Samaris will be the exception. The 27-year-old, who has over 25 caps for Greece, has been linked with a move to the Premier League in the past.Indeed back in the summer Middlesbrough were eyeing up an approach for the midfielder, but they couldn’t agree a fee for him.And now, according to O Jogo, Samaris could be on his way to Sunderland instead in a deal worth around £17m.The Black Cats are in the market for reinforcements during the current transfer window and Moyes has identified the Greece international.Samaris would still need to give the green light to the switch, but it is reported a move to Sunderland would see him double his wages. The 27-year-old has over 25 caps for Greece