Do sex and violence sell? Maybe not, says new study

first_imgEmail The researchers found that violence appeared to have the greatest influence, but in a negative way. Brands advertised during commercial breaks in violent media were remembered less often, evaluated less favorably, and less likely to be purchased than brands advertised in nonviolent media.Sexual content had a little influence, but not as much. Brands advertised during commercial breaks in media with sexual overtones were viewed less favorably than those advertised in media with no sexual content, but there was little difference in viewers’ brand memory or intention to buy.The researchers also looked at the content of the advertisements themselves. While they found no significant effects of violent or sexual content in advertisements, they did note that in a few studies when media content and ad content were congruent (e.g., a violent ad in violent media or a sexual ad in sexual media), viewers were more likely to remember the ads and had a stronger intention to buy the product. As the sexual content of an ad increased (i.e., from suggestive poses to full frontal nudity) viewers’ memory, attitudes and buying intentions all decreased, Lull said.“It’s not that people aren’t attracted to sex and violence,” said Lull. “On the contrary, people have been attracted to sex and violence since evolutionary times, when attending to violent cues prevented our ancestors from being killed by enemies or predators and paying attention to sexual cues attuned our ancestors to potential reproductive opportunities.”However, while violence and sex attract attention, it’s at the expense of surrounding content that is neither violent nor sexual, according to Lull. People pay more attention to the violence and the sex surrounding ads, both in programs and the ads themselves, than to the actual products being advertised. Consequently, memory, attitudes and buying intentions all decrease, he said.“Our findings have tremendous applied significance, especially for advertisers,” said Bushman. “Sex and violence do not sell, and in fact they may even backfire by impairing memory, attitudes and buying intentions for advertised products. Thus, advertisers should think twice about sponsoring violent and sexual programs, and about using violent and sexual themes in their ads.” Advertisers hoping to sway consumers might want to rethink running spots within media with violent or sexual themes, and might do better if the ads themselves have a G-rating, according to a study published by the American Psychological Association. Instead, violent and sexual media content may impair advertising’s effectiveness and ultimately deter purchasing, the research found.“We found almost no evidence that violent and sexual programs and ads increased advertising effectiveness,” said Brad J. Bushman, PhD, professor of communication and psychology at The Ohio State University, and a co-author on the study, which appeared in the journal Psychological Bulletin. “In general, we found violent and sexual programs, and ads with violent or sexual content decreased advertising effectiveness.”Bushman and lead author Robert B. Lull, PhD, a doctoral candidate at The Ohio State University at the time of the research, conducted a meta-analysis of 53 studies comprising 8,489 participants that were conducted through 2014. The goal was to determine the influences of violent and sexual content on advertising effectiveness as measured by brand memory, brand attitudes and buying intentions. The studies focused on a variety of media, including movies, television programs, video games and print. Some studies looked not only at violent and sexual content in the media themselves but also the content of the advertisements. Share Share on Twittercenter_img LinkedIn Pinterest Share on Facebooklast_img read more

High Court upholds solicitor’s suspension after nine-year saga

first_imgThe High Court has upheld a tribunal decision to suspend a former partner almost four years after he first faced protracted disciplinary proceedings.Lord Justice Holroyde ruled that the Solicitors Disciplinary Tribunal was right to find Kulwant Manak acted with a lack of integrity in his firm’s handling of a client money intended to purchase a property.The court further dismissed Manak’s appeal against his two-year suspension, but it did accept the tribunal was wrong to impose six restrictions on his practicising certificate once the suspension is served.The ruling in Manak v Solicitors Regulation Authority brings to a close extraordinary proceedings that started when the Solicitors Regulation Authority began investigating the Coventry firm Heer Manak almost nine years ago. Two inquiries resulted in 100 pages of findings and Manak three other parties were brought before the tribunal in November 2014.The tribunal threw those proceedings out based on poor drafting of the SRA’s case but in 2016 that decision was overturned in the High Court. The case returned to the SDT, where it was heard over 18 days spread over April, August and November last year. Lord Justice HolroydeHolroyde LJ was critical of the SRA for dropping two allegations at the final tribunal hearing, saying the regulator acted in an ‘inconsistent way’ in proceedings that were ‘unnecessarily protracted’. The tribunal itself had said the SRA’s pleadings were ‘astonishingly poorly drafted’.But the judge said, these deficiencies notwithstanding, the case against Manak was sufficiently clear and the tribunal was entitled to make the findings it did. The 51-year-old had failed to adequately supervise work, which led to irregularities in a number of conveyancing transactions, he obtained a loan from a client without insisting they take independent advice or provide any security, and he failed to comply with accounts rules.With regard to his appeal from sanction, Manak stated his suspension was effectively served by his being out of work for almost five years. The court found he was entitled to contest matters rather than admit misconduct but having done so ‘he cannot complain that the overall result is that he had been unable to practise for a substantial period of time before his suspension came into effect’.The court, however, did agree the tribunal erred in its order imposing continuing restrictions on practice. The indefinite restrictions, concluded Holroyde LJ, imposed a ‘disproportionate restriction upon his ability to earn his living’.The judge upheld an order that Manak pay 85% of three-quarters of the yet-to-be assessed costs of the case. The other respondent at the SDT will pay the 15%.last_img read more

Resurgent wagon market boosts Knorr-Bremse sales

first_imgKNORR-BREMSE: Sales grew by 14% to reach €4·24bn in the 2011 calendar year, Knorr-Bremse Group reported on January 12.The Rail Vehicle Systems Division recorded an 8% year-on-year increase in sales in 2011, reaching a total of €2·19bn. This growth was driven by a resurgent North American wagon market and by Europe. The company’s Commercial Vehicle Systems Division reported 22% growth, with business expanding in every region to take sales to €2·07bn; however the European market remained below 2008 levels. The total workforce increased from 18 053 to approximately 20 000 during 2011.last_img read more

South Africa is ready for investment, says Ramathlodi

first_img10 February 2015South Africa’s government is committed to expanding its mining industry, Mineral Resources Minister Ngoako Ramatlhodi told the African Mining Indaba in Cape Town on Tuesday.“South Africa is ready for investment,” Ramathlodi told the conference. “We are leaving no stone unturned in providing a stable environment for investment.”South Africa is the world’s largest producer of platinum and the seventh largest producer of coal.After his address to the conference, attended by 7 000 of the world’s mining executives and stakeholders, the minister joined Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies and other high-level panelists at an “investment dialogue”.Hosted by Brand South Africa, the panel focused on ways to drive competitiveness of South Africa’s mining sector.Emphasising the need to establish regulatory stability, Ramathlodi said the government was working with speed to finalise amendments to the Mineral and Petroleum Resources Development Bill.In January, President Jacob Zuma returned proposed changes to the 2002 Act back to the National Assembly on the grounds that they may violate the Constitution.DiversificationTrade and Industry Minister Rob Davies said diversification was key for African markets – including South Africa – if they were to achieve growth.“If we are to create a boom for mining, we must create a demand from Africa as well,” Davies said.There are “inherent competitive qualities” in the minerals chain, which South Africa must harness, he said. “We must use our minerals in a way that benefits African economies.”The government has invested heavily in developing minerals beneficiation projects, including using platinum to develop fuel cells and a project that turns mineral sands into titanium powder. “We are ready to rock and roll on this,” the minister said.Davies said a process was already under way to align charters and codes. The government would soon create the post of a commissioner to enforce Black Economic Empowerment regulations – and prevent “fronting”, where BEE points are being claimed but the processes are not implemented.EnergyThe government would also move “with speed” to tackle energy constraints currently affecting the country.Davies said he was confident that the energy war room would tackle the country’s energy problems, with maintenance of the infrastructure high on the agenda.The government was also conducting a “significant” build of energy-generating resources. Medupi power station, for example, would generate more electricty than Nigeria once it came online, Davies said.Mike Teke of the Chamber of Mines said the industry was committed to delivery – especially on the social and labour fronts. “We have seen great successes, but there is room for improvement,” he said.To solve labour issues and to avoid a repetition of the protracted and violent strikes that have crimped growth in the industry would require all parties to work together.“We all need one another – mining, regulator, trade unions, mine bosses,” Peter Bailey of the National Union of Mineworkers said. “We must do things differently . If we take hands, we all have a responsibility to ensure this industry remains a sunrise industry rather than a sunset industry.”Gideon du Plessis of the union Solidarity told the audience that “the time for mining is now”.“We must make progress,” he said. “This is a promising country. And a promising industry.”The Mining Indaba is an important event for Cape Town, bringing more than R500- million in direct revenue to the city over the past eight years, creating 4 500 direct and indirect jobs and selling 20 000 hotel nights.Follow Mining Indaba on Twitter via the hashtag #MiningIndabaSAinfo reporterlast_img read more

Reasons to Outsource General Counsel Services for Business

first_imgServerless Backups: Viable Data Protection for … Related Posts Amy JonesLegal Content Writer for Ahlawat & Associates 8 Unusual Ideas for a Dentistry Business 5 Essential Skills all Entrepreneurs Need to B… Tags:#general counsel lawyer#general counsel services#outsource legal counsel Amy Jones has been serving as an experienced legal content writer in Ahlawat & Associates, who is related to International Law Firm. She is a passionate writer and always on the lookout for opportunities for sharing her knowledge with legal community. Follow her company on various social media networks like: Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn. General counsel plays a vital role in ensuring a company functions within the scope of the law. Apart from assisting and guiding the management in general matters of legal compliance, other legal issues arise from time to time, which a general counsel is required to address.Outsourced general counsel services or an in-house general counsel is a crucial decision for an organization.Both outsourced general counsel and in-house general counsel have their distinct advantages and disadvantages. Various factors determine which of the two options would be better suited to the company.The decision largely depends on the nature and size of the business, at what stage of its evolution the company is in and how frequently general counsel services are required. More importantly, is whether a business can afford to have a full-time general counsel as legal advice is very expensive these days.Reasons why general counsel services should be outsourced.Cost-EffectiveWhen compared to hiring a full-time general counsel lawyer, outsourcing general counsel services can be a cheaper option for some companies. For small and midsize companies, the volume of legal work may not be that much to have a full-time legal employee.New companies may not want to incur an extra cost by hiring in house general counsel. They generally do not have enough work to justify the salary they are paid. Until the time a company evolves to a particular growth stage where the volume of legal action increases substantially. There is no need to incur unnecessary expenses on a full-time general counsel.Companies can get the same level of legal experience and expertise by outsourced general counsel services at a fraction of the cost they would otherwise incur. It’s prudent to get outside general counsel services rather than employ a general counsel attorney.Valuable Resource to the CompanyA dedicated and committed outsourced general counsel can be a very useful resource for a company. With the passage of time and every new assignment, the lawyer’s knowledge and understanding of the company’s operations are enhanced.A dedicated counsel who remains onsite to address and manage the legal issues of a company will gradually and steadily develop a better understanding of the intricacies of the business. Having an outsourced general counsel as a go-to person for every legal issue that may arise will encourage the attorney to go beyond the general functions and provide enhanced services to the company.The experience gained over time while being closely associated with the business will enable the lawyer to provide their services in a more effective, efficient, and proactive manner.Allows the Management to Focus on Core BusinessIn the absence of a general counsel, the management and other senior employees are burdened with the additional responsibility of addressing and managing the legal matters. Till the time an in-house legal services team is created, outsourcing the GC services can immensely benefit the organization.The senior management and other non-legal employees are able to perform their core functions. General legal matters like government compliance, contracts, human resource management, etc., that were taken care of by these personnel can now be managed more efficiently by the outsourced general counsel.Meaning crucial other personnel can perform the regular functions that they have expertise in. They can now focus on the core business operations with an uncluttered mind. The extra time available will result in a more efficient functioning of the organization.Streamlines the Legal Functions of the CompanyBefore a company appoints an internal attorney, the legal matters are handled by different employees. Legal work is outsourced on a need-based basis to different law firms on contracts. No single employee or a single law firm handle all the matters.Using this division of legal work means there is lack of continuity which results in functional inefficiencies. That is the legal functions remain totally disorganized.When there is a dedicated outsourced counsel, the legal functions get organized. All routine legal work and even the more specific legal issues are handled by the outsourced counsel. He/she is the first point of reference for any legal issue that may arise. This leads to better coordination and increased efficiencies.An outsourced lawyer won’t have the knowledge and expertise to handle each and every legal issue that a company might be faced with. There would be times when outside legal help would be required, anyway. But, because of the knowledge of law and understanding of the company’s business operation, in-house counsel is a better position to know which external lawyer should be hired to deal with specific issues.Also, the experience gained over time spent with the company can be leveraged to better coordinate with external attorneys or a law firm and effectively manage specific legal issues.To conclude, outsourced general counsel services can immensely benefit an organization in improving its operational efficiency and overall management capabilities. When legal issues are professionally handled by a dedicated counsel, other professionals can pay focussed attention to their predefined roles and thereby help the organization achieve its economic objective. Recovering from Business Difficulties; Resilien…last_img read more